5 Things You Should Definitely Know About Lactose-Free Milk

Ever heard about lactose-free milk? What exactly is it? You can miss out on some pretty serious nutrients if you are intolerant to lactose.

In short, lactose is a sugar which is found in almost all milk products. An enzyme called lactase should be present in the human body for the digestion of the sugar. In the small intestine, heavy sugars are split into simpler sugars and digested with the help of lactase. People who have a low amount of lactase in their body aren’t able to digest the heavy sugar and thus are intolerant to lactose. When they consume this sugar, it reaches their large intestine in an unchanged form and thus it becomes difficult to digest it.Approximately 70% of the world’s population suffers from lactose intolerance and it affects mostly adults.

Does this mean, that these people should completely stop consuming it? If people stop consuming such an important nutrition source, they would be unable to obtain all the important nutrients through a single source. This is where the milk for lactose intolerant come in. It is very beneficial for lactose intolerant people who can substitute their dairy products with products which contain low sugar contents. Let’s take a look at five things you should know about the milk for lactose intolerant.

How is it prepared

For those who are intolerant to dairy sugars, consumption of dairy products can cause stomach cramps, vomiting, diarrhoea, headaches, etc. But this doesn’t mean that they should just cut out the primary source of nutrition from their diet.

Reputed brands have come up with variants in milk to solve this problem- Milk for lactose intolerant. Unlike the name suggests, is not milk free from all lactose content. It is highly impossible to drain out all the complex sugars from dairy beverages. During the manufacturing, milk undergoes certain processes which split lactose in sugars like glucose and galactose. These are simple sugars and are easier to digest. No other nutrients other than the sugars content changes and thus enables people intolerant to dairy sugars to receive their daily dose of nutrients.

Extended shelf life:

The shelf life of this dairy product is longer than the regular milk. It is ultra pasteurised to elongate the shelf life. It undergoes a very high temperature for a short period of time which elongates the life of the product. As the demand for these types of milk variant is very less compared to the regular ones, the product is supposed to have a longer life.

Taste:

The dairy product is sweeter in taste as simple sugars taste sweet on your tongue. This is because of the complex sugars been broken down into two simple sugars- glucose and galactose. Simple sugars taste sweeter compared to the complex sugars. The taste is also slightly refined.

Nutritional benefits:

As we mentioned earlier, many people suffer from the intolerance of these sugars, lactose-free milk can help prevent the symptoms it causes. The older you get, the lesser is the lactase production in the body. Mostly, the countries which do not consume dairy products on a regular basis face these problems. Though it doesn’t cause very serious illnesses, avoiding the consumption of products with dairy sugars is the only solution.

Generally, it is rare for babies to develop lactose intolerance. A baby’s body generates lactase which helps in the digestion of complex sugars. In babies, lactose intolerance is more common in the ones who were prematurely born. Thus, there also is milk for babies which contains a low level of sugars. This helps the mothers around the world to give the right nutrients to their babies. Body decreases the generation of lactase as the child grows, hence, rather than milk with low lactose for babies, it can be opted for kids.

Non-dairy Alternatives:

There are many non-dairy alternatives, now, which does not contain cow’s milk. They are prepared from soybeans, almonds, etc. These do not contain the exact nutrition which cow’s milk provide but it is very beneficial for people suffering from lactose intolerance.

Consuming lactose-free milk is all the easier now because you do not have to walk down to stores looking for the products. In today’s world, when you can order anything at just one click, buying lactose-free milk online is also pretty easy. You can buy it from various sites which provide you with groceries and products which are required in day to day life- like the dairy products. You can just find a trusted source and order dairy products online. There are many online dairies which provide you with this product.

Thus, to answer our initial question, you do not have to miss out on your daily nutrition dose if you are lactose intolerant. There is milk for lactose intolerant people. Milk contains essential nutrients and it is recommended that everyone should include it in their daily diet. These sugars are not only included in milk but also in all other dairy products like cheese, curd, yoghurt, etc. Just read the precautions on the packs before consuming the product. Eat right! Stay healthy!

4 Impossibly Simple Dental Hygiene Tips for Everyday

Everyone wants to have that fantastic toothpaste-model smile. Did you know that getting such a smile is not all that difficult? Sometimes all that is needed is to maintain high levels of oral hygiene. All dental problems- at least a majority of them- are as a result of poor dental care. These issues could be anything from gum disease, bone loss, heart disease and so much more. Checkups and proper hygiene can prevent these issues. Here are some simple dental hygiene tips that you can employ to ensure that you keep your teeth healthy for years to come. They are exactly what you know:

1. Brushing

This is one of the simplest ways of maintaining oral hygiene. If you are brushing your teeth, you need to place your brush at an angle of 45 degrees close the gum line. The gum line and tooth surface must be in contact with the bristles. On the outer surface of the teeth using a backward -forward, up-and -down motion, making sure to be done gently to evade bleeding.

In order to clean the inside surfaces of the teeth and gums, place the bristles at a 45-degree angle and repeat the backward forward, up-and-down motion. Finally, the brush surfaces of your tongue and the roof of your mouth to remove bacteria, which may lead to bad breath. Brushing your teeth twice a day helps you to curb buildup of bacteria. If you cannot do this, rinse your mouth with water after eating to reduce the amount of food that would serve as the home for the bacteria.

2. Flossing your teeth.

Flossing can help you remove food particles and other damaging substances that regular brushing of teeth cannot. It enables one to reach between the teeth where toothbrush bristles cannot reach or mouthwash can’t wash away. It is recommended that you floss your teeth once in a day.

3. Reduce tobacco intake

This will help your teeth a lot. First, it will save you from oral cancer and periodontal diseases. Second, it will put away all the many horrible side effects caused by agents used to mask the smell of tobacco. For instance, when you smoke a cigarette, you are highly likely to use candy, tea or coffee to mask the smoky breath and odor from getting out. This increases the harm created.

4. Use mouth wash apart from brushing and flossing

They are not important and not all are effective. They contain Listerine and carbon dioxide is very helpful because they help exterminate and preserve the bacteria in your mouth. Mouth wash can help sustain well-built teeth. However, mouth wash goes hand in hand with brushing, flossing, visiting the dentist and eating well, it is just the thing that will improve your dental strength and make it grand.

Why I Quit The Gym & You Probably Should Too

Around new year 2017 I made a pledge: To quit the gym and get fit.

I know this sounds like a slightly odd inverted new years resolution, but for around 5 years I had been a committed gymphile (not sure that’s a word but there you go). My physique hadn’t changed radically except for slightly better arm definition and on occasion slightly better pecs. But for the effort I was putting in, not to mention the money, it wasn’t really worth the return on investment.

And what’s happened since I’ve quit the gym? Well, I’ve drunk a lot of beer, eaten a lot of cheese and done some very half assed exercise regimes.

The result. I’m about the same as I was when I was going to the gym.

The response from many gym go-ers will undoubtedly be, well you weren’t putting enough effort in at the gym or else you’ve been quite good with your self motivation.

Neither of those statements are true.

I used to go to the gym three times a week and put in an hour at a time – working hard on each set and making sure every minute in there was put to good use. I walked out of the gym dripping with sweat every time I went. Literally. Every. Time.

So my self motivation post gym has been good? Well. I used to run home from work on a weekly basis (about a 5 mile run). Aside from that and some runs around the park. That’s it.

So why do I think you should quit the gym?

First of all, if you’re one of those people who does about 2 hours, 4 times a week in the gym and posts selfies on Instagram of you in gym gear – this does not apply.

If you’re one of those people who goes for the social and seems to know everyone in the place and is full of tips and stuff… Probably doesn’t apply to you either.

I’m talking to the other 90% of the population – the people who go because they feel like they should. The people who when they get to the gym just go through the motions and do a few sets of this or that, or worse still just SIT on an exercise bike.

You’ve probably been sat at a desk all day eating cake and you’re watching the calories tick up on the digital display, waiting til it gets to the same number as that Krispy Kreme so you can go home.

Or, you’ve got to lose a stone so you can go on that beach holiday/get in that wedding dress/eat more cake on your birthday.

Or you saw a photo of Kate Middleton in a bikini on holiday somewhere glamorous again and decided you hate your flabby body and you really should do something about it.

Don’t get me wrong these are all noble reasons to get exercising – and exercise you definitely should. But in the gym? Not necessarily.

The gym is made for those body sculptors – the people who have actual fitness regimes and programs and have an end goal. And they will get to that end goal because, well, that’s what they really really want. When they’re not in the gym they’re planning their next visit to the gym and ACTUALLY LOOKING FORWARD TO IT.

Is that you? If it isn’t do yourself a favour and cancel your gym membership now.

What do I do now then?

Cancelled it? Saving yourself £60 a month already? Go you! Have a doughnut.

I’m joking don’t have a doughnut, that’s a terrible idea.

Food

First things first – it’s your diet. Hate to break it to you but that’s probably why you’re a bit flabby around the edges. If it comes in a packet and has ingredients that you don’t really understand – avoid it. If it claims boldly on the cover to be packed full of minerals and vitamins and to make you at least 6 times more attractive to the opposite sex – avoid it. Those ‘healthy’ breakfast bars and cereals or those low fat thingumyjigs. Swerve it.

So what to eat? Eat natural food. And not loads of it either.

Also drink water. Don’t go crazy, 2 litres is the recommended amount – about 4 pints of water.

But, you know when you’re thirsty? Have some water.

Exercise

When you’re taking in decent fuel for your body and not pumping it full of additives, you won’t have to work so hard to process it. This makes the exercise bit relatively easy.

My routine was this.

Every day I’d walk to the nearest tube station, which is about a fifteen minute walk away. I’d then get to my very sedentary work, get to lunch and then on my 45 minute lunch break I would walk as much as possible. Some days that was 5 or 10 minutes. Other days it was my whole lunch break. And then when I got home I’d either walk back home or I’d go for a run.

Total active time daily was around 1 hour 30 or more.

To amp up any exercise regime it is often a good idea to have fun while you’re doing it.

I’ve recently discovered parkour. Yes, parkour is famous for the people doing backflips and jumping across roofs but at it’s foundations it is simply a way to get from a to b in a slightly more interesting way. I’ll be honest, I’m not backflipping or rolling yet, but what I am doing is jumping onto things, pulling myself up walls or trees or doing press ups and sit ups in the park.

Basically, I’m doing resistance exercise. Trying to use my body for the things it was meant to be used for – climbing, jumping, lifting. But… Without paying a hefty monthly fee to do so.

Ways to get free exercise

There are plenty of ways you can exercise and not pay a penny. Parkour, for me, is a good one as it literally involves running outside and when I get to a bench I jump on and off it for a bit. Or if I see a tree or a fence I climb or vault it.

If you live in the country – or a smaller city nearer the country – good for you. You can probably run up hills, climb trees, swim in the sea or a river and so all kinds of free things.

In the big city it can be harder.

Running is a good start but some people find this can impact on their joints, especially without proper warm ups.

The simplest one is walking. Just walk as much as possible, as fast as possible and do it every day. Supplement it with some exercise outdoors and if you can do maybe ten or twenty sit ups and press ups too, you’ll find some good results.

Taking up a sport is probably the best way to stay in shape. Football, volleyball, dodgeball, cycling, tennis, yoga, pilates, swimming, gymnastics, hide the sausage… OK maybe not hide the sausage, but basically anything that keeps you moving and having fun.

Actually yeah maybe hide the sausage.

However you do it, get some exercise and crucially, don’t do it at the gym. Unless you NEED a weights rack to sculpt those tight buns of yours, you’re only wasting your money.

What We Eat Mentally Affects Our Physical Body

With the onslaught of globalisation and instant communication people are absorbing the evils of the world at a greater rate than ever before. Where once there was time to think about what we took in mentally it is now almost unnoticeable as it can happen in a second or less. Television, the Internet, and smart phones are occupying our time while flashes of information pass before our eyes as sparks in the universe.

Every spark has the potential to start a fire in the compost of our dreams. They can outweigh emotions and send us on a tangent that is completely different to the path we were on. Unless we are strong enough mentally to ward them off we will fall victim to the aim of their makers.

This is what the world has become. It is ruled by an insanity of dreams, conflicts, make-believe, and their consequences. It is governed by the things designed to pull us apart mentally and test our resolve to reconnect with our roots.

What am I talking about? The best explanation concerns my reincarnation and link to the Universal Spirit. It fills all of space and is in each one of us driving and guiding us to our end. Not one has independent thought or actions but we are a collecting body of the forces of creation.

Some have been chosen and are led in a different manner because of their link to the Spirit. They neither lie nor can accept lies. They ward off the sparks of make-believe and earthly ideals like water from a duck’s back. They are content and peaceful enough in their ways that only the Almighty can stir them into action.

Others, however, are like pins on a bowling alley Anything that strikes them will be a hit. They take in the filth of the world and they absorb the sparks to warm their cockles. They treat others as fodder and many will destroy in a pitch for greatness.

The question is, therefore, why has God made humans to be so diverse in nature, character, and behaviour. The answer lies in the plan laid down from the start to bring some to the glory of spiritual power and they are growing in a garden of weeds, prickles, and rocks to test them.

“For they prophesy a lie unto you, to remove you far from your land, and that I should drive you out, and ye should perish.” Jeremiah 27:10

This is what has happened to the world. Lies, make-believe, and sparks of unsubstantiated lights are driving people away from reality. Only those strong enough to withstand them are growing with strength and will be there are the harvest.

Routine Immunizations to Protect Your Health

Routine immunizations are just as important for adults as they are for children. Approximately 60,000 adults in the United States die each year of diseases that are preventable by vaccine. Following are vaccines available for adults and the latest guidelines to help protect your health:

Hepatitis B Vaccine. The hepatitis B vaccine is given in three doses over a period of months to protect against liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus. People get this virus from intercourse with an infected person or exposure to the blood of an infected person. Anyone with another sexually transmitted disease and/or is not in a monogamous relationship should get the hepatitis B vaccine.

Influenza Vaccine. The influenza vaccine is an annual vaccine to help protect against strains of influenza expected to circulate that year. This vaccine is available as an injection for all ages and as a nasal spray for those under 50. The influenza vaccine is particularly important for adults age 50 and over, pregnant women and adults with a chronic health condition such as heart disease.

Herpes Zoster Vaccine. The herpes zoster vaccine is a one-time vaccine to protect against shingles. Shingles is a painful illness characterized by a rash with blister-like lesions and nerve pain that lingers after an outbreak. Shingles and chickenpox are both members of the herpes family. Shingles generally occurs after age 40. The herpes zoster vaccine is particularly important for adults over 60 because a reactivation of the virus that causes chickenpox is more common in this age group. Even people who have had shingles should get the vaccine as long as it has been a year since they had an episode.

Pneumococcal Vaccine. The pneumococcal vaccine is a one-time shot that protects against the strains of bacteria that are the leading causes of pneumonia. This vaccine is particularly important for adults 65 and older, adults who have a chronic health condition, adults who are immuno-compromised, or are missing their spleen. All adults should get this booster shot even if they were immunized against these diseases as a child. Be sure to get the newer Tdap version to protect against these diseases.

Remove Unwanted Facial And Body Hair Using Laser Treatment

Removing unwanted hair is time-consuming and repetitive no matter what your preferred hair removal technique is, and whether you shave, pluck, wax, thread or use depilatory creams, the hair will always grow back. You’ll find the skin on your face is sensitive, and constantly using harsh hair removal treatments can cause a great deal of skin irritation.

All women have hair on the face, usually it’s fair and fine and is difficult to see, but those with darker hair are not so lucky. You will find that most of your female friends have the same issues when it comes to unwanted facial hair. The hair on the upper lip, chin, cheeks and sideburns can all be very embarrassing and cause you a great deal of insecurity. It seems that every time you think you’ve disposed of unwanted hair, you’ll find more of it sprouting up somewhere else, and even after you get rid of the hairs, they just grow back.

You can cover up your excess hair in areas that aren’t constantly exposed, but the hair on your face is always on display, and it can seem as though everyone is always looking at the hairs on your upper lip, chin or sideburns. A good way to get rid of unwanted hair is with laser hair removal.

Benefits of laser hair removal:

It permanently reduces hair safely
It’s a fast treatment time
The results will boost your self-confidence
Prevents razor bumps and irritation
Laser treatment causes only minimal discomfort

Laser energy gets absorbed by the pigment in the hair follicle, and this laser energy is then converted to heat, causing thermal damage to the follicle without harming the surrounding skin. This results in hair growth being stopped in the damaged follicle.

Generally for white skin you’ll need around 6 treatments, spaced 4-6 weeks apart, and this usually results in 80% of hair removal. Darker or black skin may need around 8 treatments, resulting again in 80% of hair removed.

Most clients experience minimal discomfort; some may experience a minor stinging or pinching sensation on the skin as we deliver the laser pulses, but we can offer topical anaesthetic cream to make treatments more comfortable.

Although we can perform laser hair removal treatment on white or black skin, lasers only work on hair which has pigment, because it absorbs the laser light and allows the heat to build up and diffuse throughout the follicle to destroy it. Therefore it’s not possible to treat white, grey, and blond hair by laser.

If you need help choosing a cosmetic procedure, we provide an extensive range of cosmetic procedures for the face and body: Botox, Vaser Lipo, Lip Augmentation, Dermal Fillers and many more treatments, to help create a younger, slimmer, more youthful looking you!

3 Steps for Women In Medicine To Have A Stress-Free Day

For women in medicine there are many things we have to accomplish each day before our first patient encounter. That means we spend most of our time reacting to what’s happening instead of being intentional. This is not the goal for doctors, nurse practitioners, or nurses who want to avoid stress, worry, frustration and feeling out of control. When you are intentional, you decide in advance the qualities you desire for your day. Rather than succumb to the stress of heavy traffic on your commute, worrying about arriving to work on time, and the number of patients scheduled for the day, you can set an intention to have a day of ease and flow. My clients understand the importance of staging your day. Here’s what I mean:

1. Before you leave work the night before, get a handle on what is on your schedule for the following day. What’s on your calendar that must be done? What are the priorities for the next day? What is on the schedule that is not essential for you to do that you can delegate to someone else on your team? From this vantage point you will focus on the items that are most important. This not only decreases stress, it lets you use your time more efficiently. Mapping out the next day gives you some room to breathe.

2. When you wake up, set clear intentions about your day before you even leave home so that your commute to the hospital or office is easy, effortless and stress free. If you are a woman in medicine with a family, you have experienced the stress of managing more than one schedule at a time. You may be juggling your spouse’s deadlines and your children’s activities in addition to your own. It is easy to feel overwhelmed when you are the primary organizer in your home. Identify how you want to feel as you move throughout you day and then declare it. When you are feeling out of sorts, remind yourself of your morning declaration.

3. Once you get to work, I recommend that my clients spend 5 minutes setting an intention – this is before reviewing email, checking patient charts, or responding to a colleague. It is the first thing you do when you get to the office. Once you’ve completed that step, it is time to meet with your team. Start the team meeting by taking 5 minutes to set a team intention. What are you working on? What do you need from me? What will you commit to doing today?

Education Linked to Better Health

While more education is no guarantee of anything these days, there is one area where more schooling has been shown to offer a benefit. And that is education linked to your own personal health. A new report from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Commission to Build a Healthier America finds that those with more education report better health than those with less education.

In every state, adults with less education are more likely to rate their health as less than very good, as opposed to those adults who’ve graduated from college. The Commission looked at data from the U.S. Census Bureau as well as Centers for Disease Control surveys done between 2005 and 2007 where over 174,000 adults from 25-74 rated their own health as either excellent, very good, good, fair or poor. This is the first attempt at ranking U.S. states based on reports of health and education achieved.

According to the findings, the more education a person has, regardless of ethnicity or race, the more likely they were to report better health. Overall, 45% of the survey respondents rated their health as less than very good, with those who hadn’t graduated from high school being 2.5 times more likely to be in less than very good health as were graduates from college. High school graduates, who did not receive college education, are almost twice as likely to be in less than very good health as adults who had graduated from college.

Even a few years of education was enough to make a difference in how healthy a person believed themselves to be. And though disparity in education level and reported health status exists in every state, there are some places where it’s particularly strong. In Mississippi for example, 73% of high school dropouts reported their health as less than very good, while only 37% of the state’s college graduates did the same.

California is another state with a large gap in numbers between less and more educated citizens. This report adds to the growing body of evidence that social factors (like education) do have an impact on health. The Commission is convinced there’s more to staying healthy than focusing on health care. Education, income and other factors aside from things considered by traditional medicine may also help determine how healthy someone is, and how long they might live.

Less education often leads to fewer job opportunities, lower incomes and lots more financial stress. What jobs there are less likely to offer health insurance, so less educated workers will naturally put off preventative care. Sick days in these jobs are more likely to be unpaid, so less educated workers force themselves to go in because they just can’t afford to stay home. And speaking of homes, those with less income have much more limited choices and may be forced to live in an unhealthy home or a neighborhood with more potential risks.

If you have more education your job prospects are probably better, the pay and benefits allowing for you to attend to your health, and the health of your children. You get paid if you stay home sick. Your doctor may take you more seriously, and you’re better able to be your own advocate in terms of care and treatment options. What’s more, you have many more choices in terms of where you live and how you live, your home is more apt to be well constructed and in a safe area.

The Commission has made a point to offer ten recommendations to Americans for improving their health that are based on two ideas, that people need to make healthier choices for themselves and their families, and society needs to remove obstacles and promote opportunities to help people make these types of choices. Until these goals are reached, all of us will keep falling far below the level of good health we might have.

Clinical Trial Budgeting and Technological Impact

The current clinical trial and drug regulatory process have lagged behind advances in scientific research. Regulatory approval is based on the evidence of efficacy and safety gathered from pivotal trials. Most experts agreed that traditional approach to drug development constitute a blunt tool where a more focused experiment could suffice instead of a one-size-fits-all approach which is ineffective and wasteful.

According to studies conducted by New England Journal of medicine, almost nine in ten clinical trials do not meet FDA requirement and thus do not reach the market. Project fails when they do not meet endpoints. Lack of efficacy and complex protocol are the major cause of failure. To reverse this trend, productivity must be directed towards the poor predictive capability of the current experimental model.

Clinic trial plays a major role in drug development and advancement in technologies such as drug positioning, therapeutic target, and drug efficacy prediction are helping researchers and pharmaceutical companies in drug development.

Traditional trials have fixed parameter that is determined in advance and remain constant throughout out the process. One promising approach to modernizing clinical trials and maximizing efficiency is by adaptive trials which allow for certain parameters such as sample size and treatment regimen to be modified or replace on interim results.

The major hurdle is that investment in clinical research is dwindling as government and stakeholders tightened their budgets. As major sponsors revenue stabilize and cost continue to rise, the clinical trial finds itself in a financial squeeze. Pharmaceutical and medical-device companies have been intent on trimming budgets. Lean contract negotiations are the norm these days, no sponsor is walking around with money burning hole in their budget and most are responding to mandate to save cost by requiring CROs to provide unrealistic competitive budgets which are disastrous. With tightened budget, short-sightedness has become the order of the day and as a result, both sponsors and CROs reputation suffered.

Cutting back drastically or unwillingness to adequately fund a project will produce a poor result. This simplistic strategy is unrealistic and unsustainable. It is important to note that focusing solely on short-term strategy will be detrimental in the long-term. If sustainable research climate is created, prosperity will definitely grow.

There has been increasing effort in utilizing technologies to streamline protocol and boost efficacy in clinical research. The use of technology is empowering research professionals by helping them to make a decision based on resulting data. With the aid of technology, organizations are reducing cost and speeding up evaluation process. Technology allows for accrual of data faster and that information can be disseminated in real time. This can lead to a better decision being made on protocol, patient recruitment, and trial sites.

Here is the list of technologies impacting clinical trials today

Risk Based Monitoring (RMB)

Companies use risk based monitoring to target and prioritize resources, identify risks relating to quality, safety of subjects and integrity of clinical trial data. Risk based monitoring (RMB) can incorporate targeted monitoring or triggered monitoring and reduced source document verification (SDV).

Traditionally, source data verification (SDV) were conducted 100% via on-site monitoring, a labor intensive approach. Reduced SDV limits the measure of SDV at the site, study and subject level.

The quest for more key ways to manage clinical trials has distinguished risk based monitoring which attempts to manage resources without compromising on clinical quality.
The variables of protocol compliance, data integrity, and patient safety etc. impact how assets are deployed.

The impact of technology in risk based monitoring is profound and currently in markets are clinical trial management systems (CTMS) and remote data capture (RDC) which can support risk based monitoring system. Some systems still support manual entering and reporting of clinical trial data, for this reason, there is a need to setup more robust systems for flagging and alerting data automatically, these alerts can be developed for notifying those who need to act when an issue arises.

According to Medidata, the cost of onsite monitoring is approximated at 28.7% of study budget and project management at 26.47%. In moving to RMB, monitors can spend their time more judiciously and reduce cost.

Electronic Trial Master File

In biopharma industry, every organization involved in clinical trial maintains a trial master file containing several thousand pages of regulatory documents needed for each clinical trial.

Using a paper-based or hybrid trial master file system to manage thousands of clinical documents, processes and tasks can be overwhelming and can cause errors or misread that can ruin clinical trial and put it at risk for noncompliance.

Organizations usually employed an Enterprise Content Management System (ECM) to manage clinical trial regulatory documents. The ECM based eTMF offers automated methods to index, archive, and report on documents and content.

To eliminate paper from a clinical trial study, electronic signing utilizing digital signatures from verified users is being employed. Globally, most countries including the US and many countries in EU are accepting digital signatures in place of wet signatures thereby eliminating the need for scanned documents.

An electronic trial master file (eTMF) offers a robust platform to document management which allows study team members to gain a quick insight necessary to efficiently manage clinical trials and speedup time to market. Electronic document management processes are being adopted at a steady pace as it becomes vital to business productivity, shortened biopharma product development timelines, and cost cutting.

eSource

In 2013, the FDA release its Guidance Document on Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations, since then sponsors and study sites have been adopting and employing eSource as a method of recording data in clinical trials.

The definition of electronic source (eSource) is a clear concept — to capture or process source data electronically, this data exclude the source data that was captured on paper and transcribed into an electronic database. In eSource, the source data element itself must be electronic.

The benefit of eSource is apparent and the FDA endorsed it because it will be useful in: facilitating real-time entering of electronic source data during subject visits, removes the need to duplicate data, allows for accuracy and completeness of data by using electronic prompts for inconsistent and missing data and lessens the chance for transcription errors.

The need to modernize and streamline the way data is collected are evolving, as a result, much of the exploratory done thus far by several pharmaceutical companies have been mostly to build internal competency. In moving forward, it is critical that standards and interoperability within different eSource modalities come together to help create systems that provide accurate data in clinical research.

Using Clinical Data Repository (CDR) to drive optimization

The ability to effective manage, report and analyze data is of paramount importance in clinical trials. The major hurdle is that data from clinical trials are frequently entered by clinicians electronically or manually across multiple channels including EDC, LIMS, CDMS and IVRS and other systems each with unique underpinning needs. This approach causes data to end up in different databases making it complex and time-consuming to leverage and synchronize the data.

There is confusion as to what constitute or defines CDR as distinct from a clinical data warehouse (CDW). CDR can be thought of as consolidated storage and transfer of data for clinical trials including security, workflow, and systems for performing daily task all under one umbrella.

Centralization of the storage and management of data results are the purpose of CDR and to provide a steadfast and reliable infrastructure that supports clinical data analysis and management, facilitate standardization and secure transfer of data, allow for analytics and cross-trial analysis and to leverage data from trials across the pipeline.

Health Insurance in Tennessee Can Help Even Those in Good Health

Even those of us who eat right and exercise remain at risk from unforeseeable events, including food poisoning, injury, mental illness, and sexually-transmitted diseases. Certain of these risks may have been underestimated, and can strike at any time.

The Produce Safety Project at Georgetown University has released a report that reveals food-borne pathogens make many more Americans sick than previously estimated. Their findings indicate that approximately 76 million of us are made ill every year by food poisoning, and about 5,000 of us die as a result.

Illness from Tennessee’s recent food poisoning scare has not been reported, but Kroger is recalling its Special Recipe Dill Dip in northeastern Tennessee, and seven other states. This dip is in 16-ounce containers, and has a sell-by date of March 4 with a UPC code of 1111046799. Because Kroger fears that some of the dip may contain salmonella, it is offering to refund or replace the dip.

Tennessee Is Not the Only State Hit by Contaminated Foods

Food-borne illnesses (including 39 percent of E. coli outbreaks) are attributed to produce that is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The cost to the U.S. is estimated at $152 billion a year, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have found that leafy greens, eggs, tuna, oysters, potatoes, cheese, ice cream, tomatoes, sprouts, and berries are the most likely foods to be contaminated.

Although in most of these cases the contamination remains unidentified, infections from well-known pathogens play a major role in outbreaks. For instance, illness related to salmonella is estimated to cost $14.6 billion in health-care fees each year; treatment related to campylobacter is estimated to exceed $18.8 billion in related health-care costs annually; and yearly costs related to listeria are estimated at $8.8 billion, according to the Georgetown University report.

Food-borne illnesses are becoming more common in the United States as we participate in an increasingly complex, and globally-distributed food chain. Our antiquated food-safety laws, funding and enforcement have not kept up with large-scale production and processing methods.

Injuries Require Health Insurance in Tennessee

Beyond unforeseeable expenses related to food poisoning, unexpected injuries also wreak havoc. Twenty-two percent of all injuries requiring emergency room help are related to sports.

Alarmingly, a trip to the hospital can cost an uninsured person five times as much as it would cost for someone with health insurance. For instance, an uninsured patient might be charged $14,000 for an appendectomy, while HMOs have the bargaining power to negotiate only $2,500 for an identical appendectomy. Excessive medical bills account for approximately 40 percent of personal bankruptcies in the U.S.

Young Adults Face a Greater Need for Health Insurance

Adults between the ages of 19 and 29 are among one of the fastest-growing large segments in the U.S. population who lack health insurance. Young adults shift between school and jobs, and those with the least seniority are the first to be let go. Many entry-level jobs do not provide health insurance, even though they offer lower wages that prevent employees from being able to purchase insurance.

In 2005, young adults without health insurance numbered 13.3 million. Just one year later, that number jumped to 13.7 million, and young adults account for almost 30 percent of the uninsured who are not elderly.

These same adults face a greater need for health insurance. According to the Journal of Adolescent Health, young people are injured more often than any other group. Three-fourths of all cases of diagnosable mental disorders begin by age 24. Sexually-transmitted infections are highest among those between 18 and 24. The Journal also reported that young adults have three times the suicide rate of adolescents, even though the adolescent rate is high.

Strategies for Finding Health Insurance for Tennessee

Agents and websites can offer hundreds of Health Insurance Plans in Tennessee, rather than only plans from one insurer. Such independent agents and websites let you compare benefits and premiums side-by-side.

You’ll need to compare the annual deductible to determine how much you’ll have to spend before your insurance coverage actually begins. Policies also have coinsurance payments. That’s a percentage that you pay for medical services even after you have met the deductible. Always clarify how much your annual out-of-pocket maximum will be, and what the lifetime limit on coverage is.

If you need prescription coverage, compare what that will cost through your policy to what it would cost through discount programs at major chains that fill prescriptions. Check the accessibility of in-network providers. Going to doctors and hospitals out-of-network can increase costs by 60 percent.

If you have a pre-existing condition, check with independent agents for ways to explain the condition in the most favorable light. Agents can also file appeals that often help get lower premiums, or reverse coverage denials.